Diseases transmitted by insects or animals
Malaria is present in the country, in rural areas (no risk in Yangon and Mandalay). Strains are highly resistant to chloroquine (zone 3).
Mosquito-borne diseases are frequent. Dengue fever cases are on the rise each year during the rain season, from May to October. Symptoms are fever, headache, rash, muscle and joint pain, nausea and, in severe cases, hemorrhagic manifestations. In 2009, more than 3,120 dengue cases were reported (37 deaths). From January to June 2010, 990 cases (6 of them lethal) have been identified countrywide.
Cases of chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis may also be reported. Both are mosquito-borne disease. Chikungunya's symptoms are fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea and, in severe cases, the pain associated with the infection of the joints persists for weeks or months. Most infected people by Japanese encephalitis, develop mild symptoms (fever, headache) or no symptoms at all. For people who develop a more severe form of the disease, Japanese encephalitis usually starts as a flu-like illness but may cause confusion and lead to severe neurological damage, such as paralysis and eventually death.
The country has been affected by the epizootic of avian flu ; nevertheless, from 2003 to 2010, only one case of human transmission has been reported in the state of Shan in 2007.
There are cases of animal rabies.
Diseases transmitted by food, water or through the environment
Diarrheic diseases are very common, due to bacterias, amoebaes or parasites.
Avoid bathing in fresh water (rivers, lakes), due to the risk of leptospirosis.
Diseases transmitted by contact with infected people
HIV prevalence is sizable; according to UNAIDS, 1% of the adult population (15-49) is HIV-positive in Myanmar.